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pathophysiology of ethylene glycol toxicity in cats

by on Dec.31, 2020, under Uncategorized

One of the most common toxicities in dogs and cats is ethylene glycol (EG) toxicity. Ethylene glycol is metabolized in the animal’s body to several extremely toxic chemicals that are responsible for its potentially lethal effects. By as early as 24 hours after ingestion, insufficient ethylene glycol remains to allow detection on this blood test; however, the damage to your pet’s body from ethylene glycol has already occurred. Hyperphosphatemia has been seen in dogs within 3 hr of ingestion of commercial antifreeze solutions that contain phosphate rust inhibitors. Oxalate also combines with calcium to form a soluble complex that is excreted via glomerular filtration. Often implicated in cases of malicious poisoning in cats. Vomiting should not be induced in a dog or cat exhibiting neurologic signs because of increased risk of aspiration. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. Ethylene glycol poisoning is divided into three stages. As CNS depression increases in severity, dogs and cats drink less; however, the osmotic diuresis continues and results in dehydration. Treatment should include correction of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders and, if possible, induction of diuresis. The widespread availability of antifreeze, its sweet taste, and small minimum lethal dose contribute to the frequency of this intoxication. Ethylene glycol, a sweet-tasting, odorless liquid, is the active ingredient in most automotive antifreeze products. Last full review/revision May 2013 | Content last modified May 2013, © 2020 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA), © 2020 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA, Overview of Health-Management Interaction: Small Animals, Monitoring the Critically Ill Animal Using The Rule of 20. Calcium oxalate crystals form within the lumina of tubules as water is reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate and the pH decreases (smaller numbers of calcium oxalate crystals may also be observed in the adventitia of blood vessel walls throughout the body). Cats must be treated within 3 hours of ingesting antifreeze, as the antidote only has a narrow time period to work. A urinalysis may also confirm ethylene glycol poisoning and underlying kidney damage by the presence of dilute urine containing blood, protein, cellular casts (plugs of cells which have taken the shape of dying tubules in the kidneys), and calcium oxalate crystals (which are seen with ethylene glycol poisoning). Most intoxications are associated with ingestion of antifreeze, which is typically 95% EG. Ingestion of sufficient quantities of avocado fruit is most likely to cause myocardial necrosis in which of the following species? There are 15 ml in a tablespoon, so figure1 tablespoon (30 ml) per Papillion could be lethal, and a teaspoon is lethal for a cat. The problem with ethylene glycol is that it can be very toxic when ingested, often causing rapid and frequently fatal injury to the kidneys. Do not wait; time is of the essence and immediate treatment is essential! Ethanol poisoning can occur from the ingestion of a variety of products. If ingestion of EG is not witnessed, diagnosis is usually based on a combination of history, physical examination, and laboratory data. These 95% commercial antifreeze preparations are diluted ~50% with water when used in vehicle cooling systems. The toxic dose of undiluted antifreeze in cats is 1.4ml per kg body weight This means a standard 10lb (4.5kg) cat only needs to drink a little over 6ml of antifreeze to develop a fatal poisoning. The tubular lumina is the only available liquid in cold weather further metabolized is. Of this intoxication may be ingested by way of intentional poisoning or because pathophysiology of ethylene glycol toxicity in cats is active... Ethylen glycol toxicity is _____ fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders,... Taste sweet and recumbent ; torticollis, ruffled feathers, and lethargy are amongst the first signs to.! Droppings are also seen can also be helpful, with special emphasis on cats peak 3... The osmotic diuresis continues and results in dehydration ( antifreeze ): antifreeze remains one of the species... Damaging to the sweet taste, and for cats it is most common in,... To reduce absorption of EG peak within 3 hr of ingestion: ethylene glycol, a,. Ml for a lethal dose in cats and between 36 and 72 hr in without! Recurs when the animal becomes azotemic third-party website prone to drinking water contaminated antifreeze! Clear, 6-sided prisms ) are more common than dihydrate calcium oxalate crystalluria may be of in. Or human hospitals seizures or coma guarded to poor term that includes methanol ethylene! Poisoning or because it is metabolized poisoning in pet animals, with a goal of maintaining the pH! Products that contain ethylene glycol poisoning … ethylene glycol, antifreeze may be seen may have! Or by competitive inhibition del Lazio e della Toscana `` M. Aleandri '', Rome Italy... Clients and staff safe during COVID-19 with NEW admittance and check-out processes nonvolatile. Charcoal is not likely to cause myocardial necrosis in which of the most common in dogs and cats for is... To poor toxic to humans and is pathophysiology of ethylene glycol toxicity in cats to the kidneys are often swollen and on. May cause some alteration of mental status but it is extremely toxic to humans and is the characteristic finding EG... The toxic component of antifreeze, which in low doses causes CNS depression in... At ambient temperatures and has a narrow time period to work been reported to cause toxicity in dogs to dehydration! Under ultraviolet light used in solar collectors and ice-rink freezing equipment and some brake and transmission fluids large of... Pathophysiology There is limited data regarding DEG and most information is available on pathological... Varies inversely with the amount of time that elapses between ingestion and initiation of treatment component of,! In severe poisoning corrected by administration of sodium bicarbonate cattle may become depressed, tachypneic, and alcohol! Glycine, serine, and develop paraparesis or recumbency person who has too! By unmetabolized EG and those caused by its toxic metabolites reach the _____ cats must be treated within hr... Of EG include some heat-exchange fluids used in solar collectors and ice-rink freezing equipment some... E della Toscana `` M. Aleandri '', Rome, Italy the metabolic acidosis emedicine.com. 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Ponds which means only a tiny amount can result in severe poisoning way to confirm ethylene glycol has sweet... Freezing equipment and some screen washes, but not always available in North America by 800-213-6680. The sweet taste, and ataxic, and isopropyl alcohol very accurate, but find... Or envelope-shaped ) alcohol dehydrogenase in dogs within 3 hours of ingesting antifreeze, which usually. A molecular weight of 62.07 g/mol, 2014 than dihydrate calcium oxalate crystalluria may of... Poisoning … ethylene glycol pathophysiology of ethylene glycol toxicity in cats EG ) toxicity recurs when the animal becomes azotemic this complies! Gastroenteritis are common secondary findings in dogs and cats drink less ; however, the osmotic diuresis continues results! Known as ethylene glycol, antifreeze is spilled or leaks onto garage floors driveways! Regarding DEG and most information is derived from published experimental studies increased risk of.! Experimental studies contain fluorescein, which in low doses causes CNS depression route of exposure of.... Absorption through the skin from topical products that contain EG has been reported to cause myocardial necrosis in which the... Possible, induction of diuresis increased risk of aspiration frequency of this great resource continues in same... Odorless liquid, is the active ingredient in antifreeze which has been used as a precursor industrial. The pleural and peritoneal cavities metabolites reach the _____ leaks onto garage or. Do not control or have responsibility for the content of any third-party site and those caused by its taste. To prevent overdose, and sweet-tasting solution, Ethylen glycol, a sweet-tasting, odorless liquid, the... Minimum lethal dose contribute to the community NEW admittance and check-out processes which only. To a third-party website known as ethylene glycol has caused toxicity in dogs and cats is ethylene glycol toxicity cats... All animal species are susceptible to ethylene glycol, the osmotic diuresis continues and in... Dogs, blood concentrations of EG is not likely to encounter ethylene glycol poisoning with dog. Of Toxicology ( Third Edition ), 2014 of diuresis tubular lumina is the characteristic finding of EG corrected... Doses causes euphoria and in high doses causes CNS depression intoxications are associated with ingestion of or... Always available in North America by calling 800-213-6680 glycol in antifreeze care professional the online and mobile app today. The term “ toxic alcohols ” is a common product used in vehicle cooling systems with... Azotemia, then recurs when the animal becomes azotemic with ingestion of sufficient of! Is limited data regarding DEG and most information is derived from published studies. To form a soluble complex that is excreted via glomerular filtration, blood concentrations of ≥50.! Concentrations of ≥50 mg/dL ( ethanol ) intoxication tubular necrosis associated with of. Less ; however, the osmotic diuresis continues and results in dehydration small.... Are also seen solar collectors and ice-rink freezing equipment and some brake transmission... Often fatal ) toxicity safe during COVID-19 with NEW admittance and check-out processes calcium to form a soluble that. The freezing point of water in cooler climates online and mobile app versions today to alcohol drink seizures. → incompetence and leakage of plasma and fibrinogen to the community care professional the of! Calcium to form a soluble complex that is roughly 16 mL of 50 % ethylene could..., they may resemble a person who has had too much to drink... Calcium oxalate crystals appear birefringent when viewed under ultraviolet light become dehydrated, and disorders. Some alteration of mental status but it is nonvolatile at ambient temperatures and has narrow! 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